‘Believe those who seek the truth, doubt those who find it.’ ― André Gide, 1952

Siemensstadt Housing Estate - Berlin - Großsiedlung Siemensstadt - Zeilenbauten Paul Rudolf Henning architect 1929–31 Unesco World Heritage (2008) © Prosper Jerominus 2018

In his 1995 essay “Eternal Fascism”, cultural theorist Umberto Eco lists fourteen general properties of fascist ideology. He argues that it is not possible to organise these into a coherent system, but that “it is enough that one of them be present to allow fascism to coagulate around it”. He uses the term “Ur-fascism” as a generic description of different historical forms of fascism. The fourteen properties are as follows:…

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